The Arenicin family consists of three members Arenicin-1 and -2 which were characterized by a Russian research group  (Ovchinnikova et al., 2004) and Arenicin 3 which is the novel member of the family even though the homology between the Arenicin-1 , Arenicin-2 and Arenicin-3 are very low. Arenicin-3 was isolated from the marine lugworm Arenicola marina and shown to contain two disulfide bonds between and together with 4 positively charged arginines and 9 hydrophobic residues the peptide was shown by NMR analysis to form a 21-residue amphipathic beta hairpin structure.

In vitro and In vivo efficacy studies have shown that the Arenicin exhibits a very potent bactericidal effect against multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Arenicin- 3 and variants are currrently being developed into new potent anti-infectives voth a novel mode of actio

Ovchinnikova el al., FEBS Letters, Vol. 577 (1-2), 209-214, 2004